The True Transformative Power of the Icelandic Language

Imagine having the ability to have spoken with your ancestors from 500 years ago. Imagine what you would learn from them, what sort of insights you would have about the way you and your family viewed the world, and even how minor things like their mannerisms and body language made you what you are.

From a physical standpoint regarding living beings, as far as I can tell, this is impossible.

But one language in my journey stood out, even more so than the dead languages I had studied and forgotten (namely, Ancient Greek and Latin), as one that was like that ancestor. Upon talking to him/her, it brought all of my interactions with the rest of its family members into place.

I am of course, speaking about the Icelandic Language. And this post is, of course, in honor of Iceland’s National Day.

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It goes without saying that the contemporary language of Iceland, while in name the exact same language that Leif Erikson spoke, is now a lot different.

For one (and NOT a lot of articles about Icelandic will mention this!) Icelandic took not only English loan words from recent times, but also Danish, French and Spanish loanwords from even further back. What more, a lot of the purist words from the Icelandic Language Academy did not end up sticking with the general populace (the exact same thing happened with the Hebrew Language Academy in Israel).

That said, it goes without saying that Icelandic is significantly more purist than many other languages that have had to deal with the same “dance” that they did (translate internationalisms vs. use them straight outright).

In fact, this is one aspect in which Faroese differs from Icelandic, by virtue of the fact that more Danish loanwords, many of them internationalisms, found their way into Faroese and not into Icelandic. (Although Faroese has significant fewer internationalisms than any of the mainland Scandinavian languages of Danish, Norwegian or Swedish).

Anyhow, I’ve come to write about what made the Icelandic language so transformative for me.

  1. It caused me to think about language evolution and what can happen to versions of a language over time.

 

The Norwegian of a thousand years ago would have been mutually intelligible to an Icelandic speaker. In fact, that same Old Norwegian was actually used in the latest “Civilization” game, with an Icelandic voice actor, no less!

 

Icelandic was (and is) very heavily grammatical, with a lot of case endings, three genders, verb conjugations and very much unlike what the mainland Scandinavian Languages are today.

For those unaware: a language like Swedish or Danish does not even change verb endings for person. It would be like saying I is, you is, he is, she is, etc.

The Mainland Scandinavian Languages did away with case endings although a small amount of idiomatic expressions survived that use them (hint: look for a preposition and then a “u” or an “s” at the end of a noun that follows!). Most Norwegian dialects kept the three genders, although Swedish and Danish reduced them to two, not unlike Dutch, in which the Masculine and Feminine became the “common” gender.

This also glosses over completely the fact that French and German words found their way into the Scandinavian Languages on the mainland while usually passing Iceland by.

What exactly accelerated language evolution? Perhaps low population densities and a lot of contact with foreigners, as well as heavily centralized authorities caused these simplifications to happen.

Given what happened to Icelandic’s immediate family members, it really makes me wonder what sort of language changes the next stages of human history will hold. Already we are witnessing an increasing amount of English content throughout almost all languages on the globe, much like the French and German languages impacted the languages of the Scandinavian mainland.

It’s truly a humbling perspective to have.

 

  1. It made me think about what language purity really what (and wasn’t)

To some degree, I’ve also had a very similar experience with Hebrew as well. Like the people of Israel, the people of Iceland have had prolonged contact with English-speaking armies, who brought along their music, television and, most infamously, their profanity.

For those unaware, Iceland had an American army presence throughout most of World War II, because the allies wanted to ensure that Hitler could not reach Canada from the Danish overseas territories (which could have been Hitler’s rationale behind invading Denmark in the first place). Ensuring a presence on Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands was of the upmost importance to the Allies.

Many, many articles have been in awe about the purity of the Icelandic language, and which is a little bit funny when you end up listening to Icelandic Rap and easily lose track of how often English words (as well as Anglophone cultural references) are used!

Purist language or not, every language has to share the world with somebody. Israeli Hebrew is the language of Abraham and David – with limitations. Modern Icelandic is the language of Leif Erikson and the first European-Americans – with limitations. That’s not a bad thing in the least, it just serves to show that true purism, especially for smaller nations, is not always within reach.

 

  1. Icelandic made me think about what smaller languages can be

 

Ask people about whether or not the Icelandic language has a future, and you’ll get many answers.

A few months ago, there was a well-publicized article about Icelandic being underused in technology (and I’ll have you all know that, while I’m writing this article, my Windows 10 system is in a [complete] Icelandic translation!) It told horror stories about 14-year-olds in Reykjavik choosing to chat to each other in English rather than in Icelandic, and that the world should be very worried indeed!

But at the Endangered Language Alliance meetings, I heard a different story: those holding up a language like Icelandic as THE success story for smaller languages. In all of recorded history there have been about 1,000,000 Icelanders tops. And yet, all of Disney’s animated canon is dubbed into Icelandic with all of the songs translated and rhymed! (Disney does this to a lot of other languages as well, no doubt, although obviously most of them are from the developed world. Also, the song translations are not thoroughly accurate reflections of the original English song lyrics, there are liberties taken but that doesn’t make it any less fantastic!)

With a language like Breton, I’m concerned for its future. I can’t always find a continuous stream of content, often a lot of people from Brittany have only a rudimentary knowledge of the language (if any at all). Comments on the internet written in Breton can be sparse, even when you know where to look. Breton seems to have been relegated to a niche environment, thanks largely to French governmental policy. That saddens me but that just simply means that I have to keep on maintaining my knowledge of Breton even more strongly.

But with Icelandic, I can easily hop onto almost any website in the country, and the comments sections will be teeming with Icelandic, the menus will be fully in Icelandic and unchallenged by the presence of any translations (most of the time). Anywhere in Icelandic settlements, even in the most touristy areas, I find that Icelandic is the dominant language I hear on the streets.

Thousands upon thousands of people throughout the globe have a desire to learn it, and many of them get permanently enamored with Icelandic, finding themselves with a treasure they’ll never give up.

The Icelandic-Language music scene is very much alive, with thousands of songs to choose from in dozens of genres. The government is actively interested in keeping the language alive, and I’ve heard that if you even go so much as to hint that the Icelandic language isn’t worth keeping alive, prepare to invite the distrust, if not in fact outright isolation, from your Icelandic peers.

Yes, in Reykjavik once or twice I encountered an ice cream store with the flavors written out in English rather than in Icelandic. I don’t doubt the problems that journalists have written about. And I think that more Icelandic products in the realm of technology need Icelandic localizations, even if it may not serve a very practical purpose in their eyes.

But whenever I think about what a small language can and should be, I would have to agree with my ELA friends and say that Icelandic is the platinum standard for small languages in the 21st century. If Breton or Irish or the Sami Languages or any endangered tongue on the face of the planet would be in the situation Icelandic is in now, there would be month-long celebrations held by its speakers.

 

  1. Icelandic Made Me Think about How to Learn Grammar and Difficult Pronunciation

 

“I’m going to try that evil language again!”, proudly exclaimed one of my students (whom I regularly teach Swedish). “I just seem to have trouble knowing when I should pronounce the ‘g’ hard and when I shouldn’t”

Not gonna lie: I considered writing a piece about “Why Icelandic is EASY”! And I thought for a while and I thought “Uuuhhhh…there are English cognates….uuuhhh…okay, good. Grammar? No….how about…pronunciation? Mostly regular but given how often Icelanders slur and leave out consonants….no…yeah, I got nothin’…”

I’ve struggled with all of my languages, even the English creoles. Got news for you: in language learning, you sort of…don’t have a choice…except for…to struggle…until you find yourself…not struggling anymore…

Icelandic was no exception. Reciting grammar tables didn’t really help. I got the pronunciation and I was imitating the voices I heard in the apps and yes, singers (not just local favorites like Ásgeir Trausti and Rökkurró but also the aforementioned Disney songs localized into Icelandic, some of which I’ve even sung at crowded karaoke bars to standing ovations! I tell you, I have this crazy theory that almost everyone living in the U.S. has a secret crush on Iceland. And it sometimes isn’t so secret…)

But I found myself at a loss for the first few months knowing when to use what case when and even if I was getting verb forms right.

What did I do?

Instead of doing the thing I would have done in college and just studied the tables endlessly until their stuck, (TERRIBLE IDEA by the way! Even with memory devices, it might not all stick!) I made a point to listen to Icelandic music every day for months at a time. Even if I couldn’t understand everything, I would be able to detect patterns involving prepositions, pronouns, and the way Icelanders actually pronounce words.

For more on Icelandic slurring, I bring you to my other success story about the Icelandic Language.

 

  1. Icelandic made me think of how, if enough people study a language, it will genuinely have an impact on the language’s future.

 

Few smaller languages (less than 1 million native speakers) are as popular as Icelandic (although Irish might come close sometimes).

I am thrilled to see, especially in light of the 2017 Polyglot Conference in Reykjavik (at which I will be presenting!), hundreds of people taking up the Icelandic Language, seeking to become a part of a culture that sometimes sees itself as under siege (did I mention how often tourists-doing-stupid-things-stories are featured in Icelandic news?)

Whether it be wanting to experience the Icelandic travel bug without leaving your hometown, wanting to experience this ancient culture, wanting to understand other Germanic Languages or perhaps out of sheer curiosity, these people are genuinely ensuring that the speakers of the Icelandic language know that all throughout the world, there are people that think about their mother tongue and want to keep it alive and let other people know about its treasures.

In an age in there are those that fear that a handful of cultures threaten to extinguish all others, I am a glad to be a part of this tradition that helps proudly hold our human heritage to the light.

 

And so can you!

 

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The Day I met Richard Simcott and Alex Rawlings I was wearing this shirt. Two years later, guess where they bring the conference? Coincidence? Maybe not!

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Fun Facts about Faroese

Well, the first thing that I have to get out of the way is this:

In the U.S., there are not many people can relate to mentioning a place or a language and then being asked, “where is that?” or “where do they speak that?”

As far as the United States are concerned, I have come across a grand total of ZERO people outside of the Polyglot Bar who had any clue that the Faroe Islands existed. Who can blame them? Most people in Europe probably are aware of their existence because of Football (Soccer? Should I use the word Soccer?)

So, let’s get this straight:

Faroese is related to Old Norse and Icelandic. It is an endangered language and the language used by about 90% of the population of the Faroe Islands and various expatriates of said islands.

These islands are somewhere between the North of Scotland and Iceland.

Faroese’s pronunciation scheme, like that of Danish, is riddled with a reputation for being impenetrable for foreigners. Like in the case of Danish, this can be alleviated by the fact that there are many similarities to English and German.

How many people speak it? Apparently the Faroese are scattered so wildly throughout the globe (although in very small numbers comparatively) that there is no way to know for certain. No fewer than 50,000, however.

Here is the flag, and the coat of arms is apparently a sheep (not shown).

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The name “Føroyar” (what the Faroese call their country) translates to “Sheep islands”, although this was in an earlier version of the language. In Greenlandic this idea is roughly translated literally, (Savalimmiut – “places where the sheep sources are”)

National Geographic named them as the world’s most desirable island destination, a designation that many Faroese were not expecting.

In no small part could this be due to the fact that the islands, unlike many other candidates in the contest, have their own language. And very recently, this language has joined my list in a low spot on my resume!

It took me a while to grapple with the grammar but a quick look at Icelandic conjugation made me feel better about what I was dealing with (Faroese seems to be tamer in its grammar). Again, it was an issue of exposure until I began to notice patterns. The tables certainly helped, but I really wasn’t someone for rote memorization when I could use fun methods like song lyrics instead.

Without further ado, I promised you alliterative “Fun Facts about Faroese”, so here they are!

  • Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…now imagine something like Thursevening, Frinight, and Saturmorning. This system works in Faroese. (these would be: hóskvøld, fríggjanát, and leygarmorgun)

 

  • The word for “unemployed” is “arbeiðsleysur”, literally, “available for work”. The equivalent appears in Norwegian and Danish today, but think about what it indicates: the implication is that, in a Viking Society, everybody works. If you don’t have work, you are available for it, not just merely being “without” it.

 

  • There is an issue of language purity at hand in the Faroese Language, but it seems to be nowhere as strong as it would be in Iceland or in some of the Native American Languages. Language purity always has, in my opinion, amusing results. One such result in Faroese is that the word for an auto mechanic literally means “car smith” (bilsmiður).

 

  • The Hebrides are referred to literally as the Southern Islands (suðuroggjar). The implication is that the Southern Islands from Frozen are actually a real place!

 

  • Faroese is very similar to English on many, many fronts. Even if you flip through the first few pages of a textbook (keep in mind, there certainly are not many Faroese textbooks to be found), then you may recognize “ha?”, a question tag at the end of sentences that works in a similar way as far as colloquial English is concerned.

 

The example from the textbook: “An Introduction to Modern Faroese”

 

“Tygum eru ikki Føroyingur, ha?”

 

Did you think of this…

 

“You’re not Faroese, huh?”

 

Direct word-for-word translations can work between Faroese and English, testament to Viking invasions from long ago.

 

  • Faroese has more linguistic differences among its speakers than Icelandic does. The “ei” sound is pronounced differently depending on where in the islands you are from, and even the days of the week can differ depending on how south you are (!)

 

  • The word for “religious” literally translates to “churchly” (Kirkjuligur). There are words for other religions (“Jødi” would turn out to be useful for me in particular), but the implication is that only one religious has a hold on the Faroe Islands, and it isn’t Judaism.

 

 

  • The Language’s pronunciation, especially “r” in consonant blends, goes a long way towards explaining some peculiarities about pronunciation in the other Scandinavian Languages. “Bort” in Swedish isn’t pronounced the way it would be in English, but it would be pronounced very similarly in Faroese (in which the word is “burtur”)

 

  • And now you’re probably wondering what on earth Faroese is good for…why bother?

 

Well, for one, it truly honed my ability to understand the Scandinavian Languages and English by means of a language that retains many old features. The odd pronunciation had post-cedents in each of the Scandinavian Languages that were, for me, very readily noticeable.

 

And, of course, the music comes in many different flavors. For now, something a bit more traditionalistic, a tear-jerker song:

 

August 2014: New Riddle!

My Arctic August is going by very well, despite the fact that the environment where I am has not been conducive for immersion, or for making videos.
Despite this difficult setup, I can now hold conversations in Greenlandic with fair frequency, but I feel that my reading ability isn’t where I want it to be. As for Northern Sami, the same situation is to be found, but slightly in favor of reading and less so of speaking.
I confess to having an inability to focus on one project at a time. Therefore, in addition to Northern Sami I was rehearsing its siblings as well. By “siblings” I mean Finnish and Estonian.
One thing that really helped me with the Scandinavian Languages were the fact that I used my inability focus on one language at a time to my advantage, and improved the lot of them together, although it took a good degree of mental gymnastics to do so.
I decided to do the same with the trio of Finnish, Northern Sami, and Estonian, which are more distantly related than Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian are.
Unfortunately, because I got really lazy, my Hebrew skills have been taking a toll, and while my understanding remains sharp I feel that my conversational abilities have plummeted. My new list reflects that, but luckily next week—my new graduate program begins! JTS’ Hebrew programs will definitely help me in that regard.
For French: despite my trip to Paris, I find myself a bit challenged. As someone who has a deep rebellious side, I find it difficult to have “chemistry” with a very commonly studied language. But Duolingo isn’t going away and I will put in some nominal effort until I start to reap results.
The understudied Faroese Language, on the other hand, is going by very well! I found the most perfect course on Memrise imaginable for me, and thanks to my new phone purchase, I have been attending to my obsessions whenever I find myself needing to wait for something.
It has taught me a LOT about the more modern Scandinavian Languages (who knew that “ingen” [no one, none] and “ej” [none] were related via Old Norse?). The pronunciation, like that of Danish and French, I had been learning by means of hearing words and putting the rules together.
When the Inuit difficulties of Greenlandic made me want to throw my phrasebook across the other end of the room, or close my browser window in frustration, I would often turn to Faroese for something easier. The vocabulary doesn’t pose a problem as virtually everything is a compound word or a piece of one, and it really helps enforce my other Scandinavian vocabularies (and teach me more than a few new words in the process).
Getting a Faroese accent is a bit difficult, but I think I may need to dabble in an Icelandic one to fully realize the difference and make it more distinctly “Faroese”.
Now, I realized at one point that I may need to drop some of my languages just because I may not realistically have time to practice them all. I did find a way around it, however, and I’ll explain it when I reveal my new language dabbling.
Here are your hints:
• This language is the official language of a country, but not the only language with this status.
• This language is also an official language of a part of said country
• This language is endangered
• Judging from the FSI’s standards, this would be very easy for an English speaker to learn (although I do have problems using “hard” and “easy” to describe language projects or languages in general).
• The language is very closely related to some of the most popularly studied languages.
• The language’s name sounds very close to an adjective used to describe its classification.
• On paper, the most common language in the area where it is spoken is one that is on my list already (it is one that I know well)

Next week I move to New York, and I really hope to improve and maintain my various projects by means of its countless inhabitants!