The True Transformative Power of the Icelandic Language

Imagine having the ability to have spoken with your ancestors from 500 years ago. Imagine what you would learn from them, what sort of insights you would have about the way you and your family viewed the world, and even how minor things like their mannerisms and body language made you what you are.

From a physical standpoint regarding living beings, as far as I can tell, this is impossible.

But one language in my journey stood out, even more so than the dead languages I had studied and forgotten (namely, Ancient Greek and Latin), as one that was like that ancestor. Upon talking to him/her, it brought all of my interactions with the rest of its family members into place.

I am of course, speaking about the Icelandic Language. And this post is, of course, in honor of Iceland’s National Day.

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It goes without saying that the contemporary language of Iceland, while in name the exact same language that Leif Erikson spoke, is now a lot different.

For one (and NOT a lot of articles about Icelandic will mention this!) Icelandic took not only English loan words from recent times, but also Danish, French and Spanish loanwords from even further back. What more, a lot of the purist words from the Icelandic Language Academy did not end up sticking with the general populace (the exact same thing happened with the Hebrew Language Academy in Israel).

That said, it goes without saying that Icelandic is significantly more purist than many other languages that have had to deal with the same “dance” that they did (translate internationalisms vs. use them straight outright).

In fact, this is one aspect in which Faroese differs from Icelandic, by virtue of the fact that more Danish loanwords, many of them internationalisms, found their way into Faroese and not into Icelandic. (Although Faroese has significant fewer internationalisms than any of the mainland Scandinavian languages of Danish, Norwegian or Swedish).

Anyhow, I’ve come to write about what made the Icelandic language so transformative for me.

  1. It caused me to think about language evolution and what can happen to versions of a language over time.

 

The Norwegian of a thousand years ago would have been mutually intelligible to an Icelandic speaker. In fact, that same Old Norwegian was actually used in the latest “Civilization” game, with an Icelandic voice actor, no less!

 

Icelandic was (and is) very heavily grammatical, with a lot of case endings, three genders, verb conjugations and very much unlike what the mainland Scandinavian Languages are today.

For those unaware: a language like Swedish or Danish does not even change verb endings for person. It would be like saying I is, you is, he is, she is, etc.

The Mainland Scandinavian Languages did away with case endings although a small amount of idiomatic expressions survived that use them (hint: look for a preposition and then a “u” or an “s” at the end of a noun that follows!). Most Norwegian dialects kept the three genders, although Swedish and Danish reduced them to two, not unlike Dutch, in which the Masculine and Feminine became the “common” gender.

This also glosses over completely the fact that French and German words found their way into the Scandinavian Languages on the mainland while usually passing Iceland by.

What exactly accelerated language evolution? Perhaps low population densities and a lot of contact with foreigners, as well as heavily centralized authorities caused these simplifications to happen.

Given what happened to Icelandic’s immediate family members, it really makes me wonder what sort of language changes the next stages of human history will hold. Already we are witnessing an increasing amount of English content throughout almost all languages on the globe, much like the French and German languages impacted the languages of the Scandinavian mainland.

It’s truly a humbling perspective to have.

 

  1. It made me think about what language purity really what (and wasn’t)

To some degree, I’ve also had a very similar experience with Hebrew as well. Like the people of Israel, the people of Iceland have had prolonged contact with English-speaking armies, who brought along their music, television and, most infamously, their profanity.

For those unaware, Iceland had an American army presence throughout most of World War II, because the allies wanted to ensure that Hitler could not reach Canada from the Danish overseas territories (which could have been Hitler’s rationale behind invading Denmark in the first place). Ensuring a presence on Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands was of the upmost importance to the Allies.

Many, many articles have been in awe about the purity of the Icelandic language, and which is a little bit funny when you end up listening to Icelandic Rap and easily lose track of how often English words (as well as Anglophone cultural references) are used!

Purist language or not, every language has to share the world with somebody. Israeli Hebrew is the language of Abraham and David – with limitations. Modern Icelandic is the language of Leif Erikson and the first European-Americans – with limitations. That’s not a bad thing in the least, it just serves to show that true purism, especially for smaller nations, is not always within reach.

 

  1. Icelandic made me think about what smaller languages can be

 

Ask people about whether or not the Icelandic language has a future, and you’ll get many answers.

A few months ago, there was a well-publicized article about Icelandic being underused in technology (and I’ll have you all know that, while I’m writing this article, my Windows 10 system is in a [complete] Icelandic translation!) It told horror stories about 14-year-olds in Reykjavik choosing to chat to each other in English rather than in Icelandic, and that the world should be very worried indeed!

But at the Endangered Language Alliance meetings, I heard a different story: those holding up a language like Icelandic as THE success story for smaller languages. In all of recorded history there have been about 1,000,000 Icelanders tops. And yet, all of Disney’s animated canon is dubbed into Icelandic with all of the songs translated and rhymed! (Disney does this to a lot of other languages as well, no doubt, although obviously most of them are from the developed world. Also, the song translations are not thoroughly accurate reflections of the original English song lyrics, there are liberties taken but that doesn’t make it any less fantastic!)

With a language like Breton, I’m concerned for its future. I can’t always find a continuous stream of content, often a lot of people from Brittany have only a rudimentary knowledge of the language (if any at all). Comments on the internet written in Breton can be sparse, even when you know where to look. Breton seems to have been relegated to a niche environment, thanks largely to French governmental policy. That saddens me but that just simply means that I have to keep on maintaining my knowledge of Breton even more strongly.

But with Icelandic, I can easily hop onto almost any website in the country, and the comments sections will be teeming with Icelandic, the menus will be fully in Icelandic and unchallenged by the presence of any translations (most of the time). Anywhere in Icelandic settlements, even in the most touristy areas, I find that Icelandic is the dominant language I hear on the streets.

Thousands upon thousands of people throughout the globe have a desire to learn it, and many of them get permanently enamored with Icelandic, finding themselves with a treasure they’ll never give up.

The Icelandic-Language music scene is very much alive, with thousands of songs to choose from in dozens of genres. The government is actively interested in keeping the language alive, and I’ve heard that if you even go so much as to hint that the Icelandic language isn’t worth keeping alive, prepare to invite the distrust, if not in fact outright isolation, from your Icelandic peers.

Yes, in Reykjavik once or twice I encountered an ice cream store with the flavors written out in English rather than in Icelandic. I don’t doubt the problems that journalists have written about. And I think that more Icelandic products in the realm of technology need Icelandic localizations, even if it may not serve a very practical purpose in their eyes.

But whenever I think about what a small language can and should be, I would have to agree with my ELA friends and say that Icelandic is the platinum standard for small languages in the 21st century. If Breton or Irish or the Sami Languages or any endangered tongue on the face of the planet would be in the situation Icelandic is in now, there would be month-long celebrations held by its speakers.

 

  1. Icelandic Made Me Think about How to Learn Grammar and Difficult Pronunciation

 

“I’m going to try that evil language again!”, proudly exclaimed one of my students (whom I regularly teach Swedish). “I just seem to have trouble knowing when I should pronounce the ‘g’ hard and when I shouldn’t”

Not gonna lie: I considered writing a piece about “Why Icelandic is EASY”! And I thought for a while and I thought “Uuuhhhh…there are English cognates….uuuhhh…okay, good. Grammar? No….how about…pronunciation? Mostly regular but given how often Icelanders slur and leave out consonants….no…yeah, I got nothin’…”

I’ve struggled with all of my languages, even the English creoles. Got news for you: in language learning, you sort of…don’t have a choice…except for…to struggle…until you find yourself…not struggling anymore…

Icelandic was no exception. Reciting grammar tables didn’t really help. I got the pronunciation and I was imitating the voices I heard in the apps and yes, singers (not just local favorites like Ásgeir Trausti and Rökkurró but also the aforementioned Disney songs localized into Icelandic, some of which I’ve even sung at crowded karaoke bars to standing ovations! I tell you, I have this crazy theory that almost everyone living in the U.S. has a secret crush on Iceland. And it sometimes isn’t so secret…)

But I found myself at a loss for the first few months knowing when to use what case when and even if I was getting verb forms right.

What did I do?

Instead of doing the thing I would have done in college and just studied the tables endlessly until their stuck, (TERRIBLE IDEA by the way! Even with memory devices, it might not all stick!) I made a point to listen to Icelandic music every day for months at a time. Even if I couldn’t understand everything, I would be able to detect patterns involving prepositions, pronouns, and the way Icelanders actually pronounce words.

For more on Icelandic slurring, I bring you to my other success story about the Icelandic Language.

 

  1. Icelandic made me think of how, if enough people study a language, it will genuinely have an impact on the language’s future.

 

Few smaller languages (less than 1 million native speakers) are as popular as Icelandic (although Irish might come close sometimes).

I am thrilled to see, especially in light of the 2017 Polyglot Conference in Reykjavik (at which I will be presenting!), hundreds of people taking up the Icelandic Language, seeking to become a part of a culture that sometimes sees itself as under siege (did I mention how often tourists-doing-stupid-things-stories are featured in Icelandic news?)

Whether it be wanting to experience the Icelandic travel bug without leaving your hometown, wanting to experience this ancient culture, wanting to understand other Germanic Languages or perhaps out of sheer curiosity, these people are genuinely ensuring that the speakers of the Icelandic language know that all throughout the world, there are people that think about their mother tongue and want to keep it alive and let other people know about its treasures.

In an age in there are those that fear that a handful of cultures threaten to extinguish all others, I am a glad to be a part of this tradition that helps proudly hold our human heritage to the light.

 

And so can you!

 

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The Day I met Richard Simcott and Alex Rawlings I was wearing this shirt. Two years later, guess where they bring the conference? Coincidence? Maybe not!

June 2017: Improve Reading Greenlandic + Learn Krio!

With the Myanmar venture completed, I now turn my sights to June, as well as the intention to have a different Language-Learning or Language-Maintenance related task each month.

Speaking of Language Maintenance, stress related to my video game design has caused me to set aside Tuesday and Saturdays to intense Language Maintenance—to the exclusion of all other days (which will just be flashcarding and other apps when I’m on the subway or what-have-you). I’ll see what this actually ends up doing to my routine.

Anyhow, for June, two missions!

 

  1. Improve my Reading Ability in Greenlandic substantially

 

My ability to write in Greenlandic, oddly enough, is almost non-existent (although perhaps once I get something like a predictive-text keyboard with it, that will actually change, maybe). Casual conversation and tourist things—pretty much whatever is in “Grönländisch Wort für Wort”—is my forte, although I really wouldn’t call myself consistently fluent in Greenlandic at all.

Going through that book endlessly isn’t going to help, what I think I’ll actually need to do is go through intense reading exercises, not involving song lyrics that have translations on the side (I’ve probably memorized everything from Nanook’s songbook by now after three years of listening to their music constantly).

I have three weeks, and I’m going to commit a half-hour per day to reading Greenlandic and using the “gloss” treatment on them (which was something I inventing in teaching classes).

The gloss treatment is, namely, that I take an article, and do the following:

  • Each sentence gets its own paragraph
  • All words that I haven’t encountered before (or, in the case of what I do for classes, that the student is unlikely to have encountered before, or rarer still, that I haven’t seen) get highlighted.
  • After each paragraph I provide the glosses. (In my classes, I often white out the definitions with MS Word on Screen Share, often I’ll get them to guess the words first, a helpful memory technique, by the way, sometimes provide hints or cognates, and then I’ll reveal the definition)

 

greenland asanninneq

 

Here’s my plan:

  • For the first week, I’ll focus on Facebook posts (from fan pages, people who I follow, or friends) in Greenlandic.
  • For the second week, I’ll do song texts that are NOT translated into English, and I’ll choose songs for which the texts are available but that I’ve never seen a translation for
  • For the third and final week, I’ll use news stories while deliberately IGNORING the Danish translation that often accompanies stories in Greenlandic (Fun Fact: in Greenland a lot of signs, etc. are translated in both Greenlandic and in Danish, same for articles, but in the Faroe Islands this is a lot less prevalent)

 

And here is the only Greenlandic dictionary I will ever need, with the comprehensive vocabulary of 18,000+ terms: http://www.ilinniusiorfik.gl/oqaatsit/daka.

Also, one piece of fantastic news that I neglected to mention on this blog: I’m going to be presenting at the Polyglot Conference in Reykjavik in October 2017, and apparently one of the presenters is the head advisor of the Greenlandic Language Secretariat, Per Langgård. Imagine something like “Mr. Greenlandic” and you’ll understand why I remain in absolute awe (and, what’s more, even more motivation for me to perfect this language as much as I can).

I’ll give an update at the end of each week (on the 7th, the 14th, and the 21st).

 

  1. Because I always have to be learning some other language somehow…Krio! Of Sierra Leone! Long Overdue!

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Back in 2015 I got a gift for Hanukkah (as I was coming out of Lyme Disease, or so it seemed at the time). I decided that, when I got better, I would commit to learning a language for family reasons, namely Krio. It followed that a printed and bound version of the Peace Corps book (or one of them, anyhow) would do the trick.

Yes, I am very well aware of the fact that the book by itself will not make me fluent, but it occurs to me that without the Internet I wouldn’t be anything close to a real polyglot at all.

My parents words in Sierra Leone before I was born, and sometimes even recalled a word of Krio or two. After having picked up three other English Creole Languages in my lifetime (the Melanesia trio of Tok Pisin, Pijin and Bislama), I thought it would be a “relaxing” project to try this one.

At some point in my life I would also like to learn the following for family reasons: Hungarian (slated for this year at long last and after dozens of lazy attempts), Swahili, Arabic of Sudan and Navajo (my Grandmother’s family spoke Hungarian and you can probably guess where my parents worked for the other three. Fun fact: I was actually conceived on the Navajo Reservation!)

I’ve worked through about thirty pages of the Krio book and I can say that I’ve mastered the grammar (Creole Languages are not known for having very complicated grammar at all…)

What’s more, given as this is my first African language (I know, long time but it finally came!), I’ve been amazed on every level given how many elements of Krio carried over to American English (no doubt through the African-American experience, which also had similar ingredients from too many local African languages to count, much like Krio has from Yoruba, Arabic, Twi, etc.)

This is going to be a welcome break from languages with very complicated grammar systems (Finnish, Greenlandic, Hebrew) or pronunciation schemes (Irish, Faroese). It will also be very helpful as a confident builder, not also to mention that I find that languages from outside the European bubble are more likely to change my outlook on life.

Will let you know how it all goes!

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Portrait of a soon-to-be Krio speaker.